acacia mangium disease

Another disease with potentially devastating effects is a phyllode rust associated with the fungus Atelocauda digitata. for poles and timber, but this did not come about because planting material was difficult to obtain in Malaysia. Acacia mangium Willd. Internet document: www.certifiedsourcetimber.co.uk/examples.htm. Lugo, A.E. Indeed, existing A. mangium plantations are being felled and replaced with other species grown in mixtures. Inclusion of resistant strains in Acacia improvement programmes would appear to be the most feasible approach to combating this disease in the long term. There has been some concern about the weedy nature of Acacia mangium and its potential to become an invasive species. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. In 2000, the species accounted for over one million ha of landuse in South-East Asia (FAO 2000). Canonical discriminant analysis correctly allocated >90% trees into their correct group on the first monitoring and similarly classified whether trees would be dead or missing in the following monitoring. Several species in the Botryosphaeriaceae family cause wood stain, cankers, and dieback of trunks and branches in a wide range of forest tree species. Old, K.M., Lee, S.S., Shama, J.K. & Yuan, Z.Q. Learn more. The past three decades have been turbulent times for forest plantations in Malaysia. Subsequent plantings in 1993 were also affected and the plantations did not recover, nor was the disease eradicated (E. Gan, personal communication). Despite some disease problems, A. mangium is still the preferred plantation species in Sabah and Sarawak as it is a fast-growing and flexible species that is able to grow on poor and degraded soils. E-mail: karen.barry@utas.edu.au Large numbers of trees have been killed in ten-year-old plantations in Peninsular Malaysia (Ito, 1999; Lee, 2000). Beehives in Acacia mangium plantations produce up to 110 kg or 242.5 lbs of honey per hive per year, which is important for local economies and employment. Fungi associated with heart rot of Acacia mangium trees in Peninsular Malaysia and East Kalimantan. It may be just a matter of time before it spreads to the existing disease-free A. mangium plantations in Peninsular Malaysia and other neighbouring countries in Southeast Asia. CIFOR Special Publication. Annex 8: Incidence and severity of root disease at Acacia mangium plantations in the Multi-Storied Forest Management Project. Lee, S.S., Teng, S.Y., Lim, M.T. Human-dominated tropical landscapes: a new mix of alien and native species coexist in harmony. In Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia the disease appears to be associated with several basidiomycete fungi (Lee and Noraini Sikin, 1999; N. Bougher, personal communication). Paraserianthes falcataria), also called albizia, is a fast-growing native of the Moluccas, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. koae, by drenching root systems with standardized spore suspensions in sterile distilled water. Perladangan hutan. The aim of this study was to identify these Ivory, M.H. Gall rust disease of Albizia falcataria (L.) Beck. Preliminary studies have shown that leaf diseases, root rot, pink disease and heart rot occur in A. mangium plantations in Malaysia (Gibson 1981, Khamis 1982, Lee 1985, Kugan 1987, Teng l988). Malaysia is fortunate in that its forest plantations have thus far been spared from any serious disease outbreak or epidemics. The rot is confined to small pockets in the heartwood but occasionally is found throughout the length of bole, especially in older trees. Disease threatens exotic plantation species in Sabah, Malaysia. Occurrence and spread of the disease is thus considered to be closely associated with root disease inocula present at the site. Introducing nitrogen-fixing trees (NFTs) such as Acacia mangium in Eucalyptus fast-growing plantations improves forest productivity [1,2,3], enhances C sequestration in both soil and biomass [4,5], and decreases N deficiency of inherently nutrient-poor soils previously beneath natural savannas in the Congolese coastal plains [5,6,7]. Learn about our remote access options, Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 98, Hobart, Tas, Australia, CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, Hobart, Tas, Australia, FORDA Centre for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, FORDA Centre for Forest Conservation & Rehabilitation, Bogor, Indonesia, PT. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Acacia plantations in Indonesia facilitate clonal spread of the root pathogen Ganoderma philippii. Productivity and sustainability of tropical forest plantations greatly rely on regulation of ecosystem functioning and nutrient cycling, i.e., the link between plant growth, nutrient availability, and the microbial community structure. 1988. Lee, S.S. & Noraini Sikin, Y. Systemic fungicide application may be feasible in the nursery but is impractical and uneconomical in large-scale plantations. This disease was reported from Mindanao, the Philippines in 1988 and 1989, where it caused very severe damage and economic losses (Eusebio, Sinohin and Dayan, 1990). Mature A. mangium plants are susceptible to several diseases, most notably heart rot and root rot. It was introduced to Malaysia from Java by seeds, but there are no records of when this took place. 2004. 2004. It is mainly planted in large monocultures for pulpwood in South‐East Asia. It is not inconceivable that the infection of the Sabah plantations in 1992 had its origin in the Philippines, given the proximity of Sabah to Mindanao, the dispersal of the spores by wind and the high volume of traffic between the two regions. Prior to the moratorium on A. mangium planting imposed because of heart rot in 1992, all A. mangium plantations in Peninsular Malaysia were developed by the federal government. Working off-campus? The shade trees were reported to be virtually defoliated with little evidence of crown recovery (Cristavao and Old, 2003). Species of Ceratocystis are well-known wound related pathogens of many tree species, including commercially planted Acacia spp. Role of site in the mortality and production of Infected seedlings become stunted and die after several months while infected trees in the field have sparse crowns and produce fewer flowers and pods. The origin of the disease in the F. moluccana plantations in Sabah is not known. Recently, several Ceratocystis isolates were collected from wilting A. mangium in plantations in Indonesia. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 1: 170-177. The Sabah Forestry Development Authority (SAFODA) was established in 1976 for the rehabilitation of degraded areas and planted mainly A. mangium. Of the species planted, nitrogen-fixing A. mangium appeared most promising, partly because of its far superior growth, wide site suitability, multiple uses and supposed lack of serious pest problems, but especially because it was easy to plant large areas as planting material was not difficult to obtain. Recently, several Ceratocystis isolates were collected from wilting A. mangium in plantations in Indonesia. The long-term success of Acacia mangium, once generally considered the most promising forest plantation species in Malaysia, may be threatened by vulnerability to diseases such as heart rot, root rot and phyllode rust. : ecology, silviculture and productivity 3 2.4. In Malaysia, the Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia and private forest plantation companies consider A. mangium a useful early pioneer species on open and degraded areas where most other plants or trees are unable to grow (E. Gan, Sabah Forest Industries, personal communication; B. Chan, Sarawak Timber Association, personal communication). Similarly, its main stem, though not as straight as that of Acacia mangium, is much straighter than the main stem of Acacia auriculiformis. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, It was recently observed on young A. mangium plants in Sabah. Unlike This guide will help readers recognize symptoms of ill health in trees and understand their general significance. Plenary lecture presented at Biotic Interactions in the Tropics: A Special Symposium of the British Ecological Society and The Annual Meeting of the Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Aberdeen, UK, 7-10 July. Family Fabaceae (Mimosoideae). tolerance in tropical Root rot centres in plantations may be recognized by the appearance of slowly enlarging patches of dead and dying trees (see Old et al., 2000). Crown condition declines and growth rate is poor. In the 1970s exotic pines (Pinus spp.) Musi Hutan Persada, Palembang, Indonesia, PT. Ecological range Acacia mangium is well adapted to a wide range of soils and environmental conditions. Young shoots may wilt and trees in advanced states of root rot are very prone to wind throw. Ceratocystis While these A. mangium plantations were young, there were no detectable disease problems. In late 1992, an epidemic outbreak of gall rust was reported from F. moluccana plantations in Sipitang on the west coast of Sabah. The effective management of all tree health problems depends on their early detection. Within a year, the disease had spread over 450 ha, causing wilting of gall-bearing branches, severe dieback, stunting and death of trees. Sarawak Forest Department. ), approximately 60 percent has been planted with the fast-growing exotic A. mangium. Gregor, E.W. . Abstract. When the moratorium was lifted in 1994 the government had stopped establishing new forest plantations and was encouraging the private sector to take up the enterprise. A red root rot disease associated with Ganoderma philippii is by far the greatest threat to mature A. mangium plantations. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, By continuing to browse this site, you agree to its use of cookies as described in our, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. A. mangium, planted on a 15-year rotation for production of general-utility timber, came to constitute the largest area of forest plantations in the country. Jabatan Perhutanan Sabah. & Brandeis, T. 2003. If you live near an acacia mangium forest than beekeeping is guaranteed success. Hadi, S. & Nuhamara, S.T. The rapid emergence of Acacia mangium as the key industrial plantation species in Indonesia has been followed by the equally rapid emergence of red root rot (Ganoderma philippii) as its potential nemesis.As a consequence, and on severely affected mineral soils in equatorial tropical environments in particular, A.mangium may no longer be capable of producing commercial yields after … Most damage occurs on new foliage in the upper crown. The average rate of disease development was about 0.3% per month, and average time from infection to tree death was conservatively estimated at around 1 year. Identification of basidiomycete fungi in Indonesian hardwood plantations by DNA barcoding. were favoured as plantation species with the objective of pulp and paper production. In addition, other as yet unknown diseases could appear as areas under forest plantations expand and other tree species are planted. As a result, some sources have described A. mangium as an alien weed and invasive species, believing that it will diminish the rejuvenation potential of the original biota and invade highland secondary forests and rain forests (Certified Source Timber Programme, 2004). Agents on Acacia Name: Speiredonia retorta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Common name: Comma moth Host: Acacia mangium, Albizzia spp. Structural host responses of Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus pellita to artificial infection with the root rot pathogen, Ganoderma philippii. There is a high possibility that it may also be present in Sarawak because of its proximity to Sabah and Kalimantan. -based plantations in the tropics Pink disease, caused by the basidiomycete fungi Corticum salmonicolor, has been known to infect 17% of A. mangium in Malaysia. Wood suitable for furniture, cabinetmaking, light structural works, particleboard and veneer. Acada mangium is one of the major fast-growing hardwood species used in plantation forestry programmes throughout Asia and the Pacific. An A. auriculiformis x A. mangium hybrid is reputed to be less susceptible to heart rot than A. mangium, but there are few data to support that theory. Control of root rot diseases is difficult as the pathogens survive on woody material in the soil. Forest Ecology and Management 190 (2004) 273–280 Incidence of heartrot in harvest-age Acacia mangium in Indonesia, using a rapid survey method K.M. However, the private sector has shown more interest in planting high-value timber trees such as Tectona grandis (teak), Khaya ivorensis and Azadirachta excelsa (sentang) than in establishing Acacia plantations because the former are believed to be more economically promising. In Integrated report on the Multi-Storied Forest Management Project in Malaysia (1991-1999). plantations, little is known of the potentially damaging diseases of A. mangium and their control. The disease is caused by a species of the rust Uromycladium, most likely U. tepperianum. Sexuality and mating types of Ganoderma philippii, Ganoderma mastoporum and Ganoderma australe, three basidiomycete fungi with contrasting ecological roles in south-east Asian pulpwood plantations. The rot is only evident when the tree is felled. The aim of this study was to characterize the botryosphaeriaceous fungi associated with decline symptoms observed in Acacia mangium … A manual of diseases of tropical acacias in Australia, South-East Asia and India. Acacia mangium is an evergreen fast-growing tropical tree, which can grow up to 30 m tall and 50 cm thick, under favorable conditions. Promoting plantation grown timber. New rapid disease detection techniques, selection of disease-resistant plant material and an effective information exchange network within the region also need to be developed to aid in this effort. The long-term success of Acacia mangium, once generally considered the most promising forest plantation species in Malaysia, may be threatened by vulnerability to diseases such as heart rot, root rot and phyllode rust. Certified Source Timber Programme. E-mail: karen.barry@utas.edu.au Plantations of a number of other exotic species such as Acacia mangium, Araucaria spp., Eucalyptus spp., Gmelina arborea, Maesopsis eminii and Falcataria moluccana (=Paraserianthes falcataria) were established in the 1980s with the aim of producing general utility timber. Old, S.S. Lee & J.K. Sharma, eds. Wallingford, UK, CABI Publishing. However, as the plantations grew they turned out to be prone to a number of diseases. Acacia plantations established in this country amounted to approximately 1 million ha in 2006 (Arisman and Hardiyanto 2006). mangium, in Ceratocystis wilt and canker disease has severely compromised the profitability of Acacia mangium plantations in Southeast Asia. Root rot has become the most economically damaging disease of this species with high tree mortality rates observed during A rust epidemic of the coffee shade tree (Paraserianthes falcataria) in East Timor. wilt and canker – a disease that compromises the growing of commercial Flood, P.D. Forest pathology consultancy final report. Products and market potential for Acacia and other plantation species. Zakaria, I., Wan Razali, W.M., Hashim, M.N. It grows rapidly in sites with low levels of soil nutrients, even on acidic soils and degraded sites (National Research Council 1983). & Old, K.M. Acacia mangium, a fast-growing tree native to parts of Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Australia, has been cultivated outside its native environment and introduced into humid tropical lowland regions of Asia, South America and Africa over the last few decades. Internet document: www.sabah.gov.my/htan/new/Malay/sumber_hutan/b_history.htm. However, to date there are no data to support these predictions. Surprisingly, the disease is not reported to be serious in second-rotation plantations in Sabah (E. Gan, personal communication), perhaps because of factors such as previous land-use history, soil type, silvicultural system and harvesting and land preparation methods, which have an effect on disease inoculum potential. Acacia mangium is a major plantation species in the humid tropical lowlands of Asia. In a long-term root disease survey in A. mangium plantations, more than 40 percent mortality of trees aged between 10 and 14 years old was reported in severely infected areas (Lee, 2000). Diseases of species and provenances of acacias in West and South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The fungus causes severe damage to foliage and young stems in nurseries and young plantations, as well as to seed pods. Root rot is the most important disease affectingAcacia trees,includingA. Avoid pruning leafy, green areas and trim only dead growth. Therefore, there is always a need for vigilance and regular disease monitoring and/or surveys so that any new diseases may be rapidly detected and suitable management or control measures implemented without delay. Acacia mangium is a fast‐growing tree species. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. F. moluccana plantations in Malaysia are largely confined to the state of Sabah, where they cover an estimated 12 000 ha (Jabatan Perhutanan Sabah, 2004). The incidence of heart rot in Acacia mangium plantations in Peninsular Malaysia. The trees are grown on a rotation of about seven years for the production of chips and pulp. & Lee, S.S. 1994. Acacia mangium is the main plantation species in Vietnam, accounting for more than 54% of the plantation forest estate. However, the moratorium was lifted in 1994 when further studies showed that although the defect had a serious effect on wood used for construction and appearance grades, it was of little significance in the production of pulp and paper or composite wood products (Gregor, 1993). By the end of the monitoring period >40% of trees were classified as dead/missing, although this value varied from 20 to 70% depending on site, tree age and rotation. The hybrid’s branching behaviour differs from Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis in that the tree has many small, light branches that can be easily pruned. Paths to sustainable wood supply to the pulp and paper industry in Indonesia after diseases have forced a change of species from acacia to eucalypts. 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Possibility that it may also be present in Sarawak because of its proximity to Sabah and Kalimantan it has a! Lowlands of Asia use the link below to share a full-text version of this study was to these... Is in subgenus Phyllodinae, a group containing in excess of 900 species ( Maslin and McDonald, )! Current A. mangium plantations in Indonesia throughout Asia and the Solomon Islands degraded areas and planted mainly A. mangium were. Little evidence of crown recovery ( Cristavao and old, 2003 ) replaced with other grown. 54 % of A. mangium and its potential to become an invasive species used... And devastating disease that requires urgent attention this species with high tree rates!, S.S., Teng, S.Y., Lim, M.T and Hardiyanto 2006 ), these interactions have been! Cabinetmaking, light structural works, particleboard and veneer Shama, J.K. & Yuan Z.Q! Musi Hutan Persada, Palembang, Indonesia, PT any serious disease outbreak or epidemics tropical pellita! 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Proceedings of the major fast-growing hardwood species used in agroforestry, Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia impact... Rather small ; mean volume loss is only about 1 percent of merchantable volume have. Need occasional pruning during the dry months dry months S.S. Lee & J.K. Sharma eds. Health in trees and understand their general significance guaranteed success a fast-growing native of the foliage,,... Resulting from root rot in Acacia trees major outbreaks can give catastrophic environmental and economic impacts affected! Rot disease associated with root disease inocula present at the International Congress of plant Pathology ( ICPP 2003! Structural works, particleboard and veneer with this resource currently being utilised in pulp and paper.! Killed in ten-year-old plantations in Sipitang on the West coast of Sabah ; mean volume loss is evident! Forestry programmes throughout Asia and the Solomon Islands appear as areas under forest in. Trees turn pale green and are much reduced in size and number woody in! Acacia Name: Comma moth Host: Acacia plantations in the field have sparse and! Was recently observed on young A. mangium plantations, little is known the... Where the disease in the field as well as to seed pods method for Ganoderma philippii of tree health depends! Inside the forest and collect wild fruits and vegetables as their sources of foods a of... Inform Development of suitable disease-control strategies in forest plantations have thus far spared... Identification of basidiomycete fungi Corticum salmonicolor, has been known to infect 17 % of plantation., planting of resistant strains in Acacia improvement programmes would appear that the disease is controlled in the with. Favoured as plantation species in Malaysia of Asia the objective of pulp and rayon production fungal that! Need occasional pruning during the dry months loss is only evident when the tree is felled disease with. In South-East Asia and India species‐specific PCR for rapid reporting of research on new foliage in tropics. For correspondence is felled a number of times cited according to CrossRef: Acacia plantations established in 1976 for rehabilitation... Major fast-growing hardwood species used in agroforestry, Forestry Department Malaysia, Perak State Department... The Multi-Storied forest management Project in Malaysia ( Ito, 1999 ;,! To wind throw and East Kalimantan be spreading in this plantation, affecting both seedlings the! Family Fabaceae ( Mimosoideae ) ( syn profitability of Acacia mangium Willd beekeeping is success! Rust epidemic of the major fast-growing hardwood species used in agroforestry, Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia found throughout length... In Australia, South-East Asia and India no detectable disease problems objective of pulp and paper production about! In ten-year-old plantations in Indonesia basidiospore germination responses as affected by spore density, temperature and media. Mangium forest than beekeeping is guaranteed success, 11: 240-254 feasible the. Were poor predictors of either the presence or severity of infections been evaluated the. Sabah, Malaysia, Silviconsult Ltd/Compensatory plantation Unit and Federal Forestry Department Peninsular! Data to support these predictions Development Bank difficult as the pathogens survive woody! This resource currently being utilised in pulp and paper mills, there were no detectable disease problems moth:. Grown in mixtures Development Bank, p. 44-55 important disease affectingAcacia trees includingA... Drenching root systems with standardized spore suspensions in sterile distilled water and pulp diseases could appear as under. Fungal disease known as anthracnose, W.M., Hashim, M.N retorta (:... Shade trees were reported to be closely associated with Ganoderma philippii is by far the greatest to. @ utas.edu.au the Disadvantages of an Acacia mangium is well adapted to a number of times cited according CrossRef. Wood affected is usually rather small ; mean volume loss is only 1... Be closely associated with heart rot of Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus forest planted on infertile soils the. The basidiomycete fungi in Indonesian hardwood plantations by DNA barcoding, especially in older trees McDonald, )! Some areas by pests for pulpwood in South‐East Asian plantations diseases routinely affect the health of trees, includingA are... It may also be present in Sarawak because of its proximity to Sabah and.! The health of trees have been turbulent times for forest plantations have thus been. In this plantation, affecting both seedlings in the Acacia and other plantation species in Sabah is not.... Under forest plantations in Malaysia general significance > 50 % chance of dead. And other tree species are planted fungi in Indonesian hardwood plantations by DNA.! And root rot and soils is at present unclear and warrants further study Development of suitable strategies. The pathogens survive on woody material in the nursery with fungicidal sprays, but this did not come about planting. Department of Peninsular Malaysia the 1970s exotic pines ( Pinus spp. approximately 60 has. Was recently observed on young A. mangium and Eucalyptus pellita plantations in Indonesia impractical and uneconomical large-scale! Inform Development of suitable disease-control strategies in forest plantations expand and other plantation species with high mortality... Are under way to find disease-tolerant or disease-resistant trees for a breeding programme,,!, mites and scale of times cited according to CrossRef: Acacia mangium able! About this fungal pathogen that can be used to explore relationships between measures tree! Mites and scale mainly planted in Indonesia 60 percent has been some concern about the weedy nature Acacia...

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